Titration is the use of one chemical in which you know the concentration and volume of to find the concentration and volume of another substance.
This can be applies using the M1V1=M2V2 equation, which states that the molarity and volume of one substance can be used to determine that of another.
For example, you could use this with an antacid tablet. If you put 25mL of a solution into a flask and added a pH indicator like BTB to the tablet solution until it turned blue (indicating a base), then dripped 12mL of nitric acid of a .75 Molar concentration into it until it turned greenish (indicating the mixture was neutral), then you could find the concentration of the solution. You would need to then balanced the equation:
Mg(HCO3)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) –> Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2CO2(g). This tells the ratio is a 1:2 ratio in the solution.
First, use amount of acid: (.75mol HNO3/1L) * (.012L) = .009mol HNO3
Next use molar ratio: (.009mol HNO3) * (1mol Mg(HCO3)2/2mol HNO3) = .0045mol Mg(HCO3)2
Then, find the concentration: (.0045mol Mg(HCO3)2) ÷ (.025L) = .18 M
This tells us there are .18 moles of magnesium bicarbonate
Titration can be used for various other uses, and can often assist many industries such as water chemists and engineers, as well as chemical scientists.